The earliest known civilization in Nigeria was the Nok civilization, which dates back to 1000 BC.
The Nok people were known for their terracotta sculptures and were believed to have been skilled ironworkers.
In the 14th century, the Hausa Kingdoms emerged in northern Nigeria, which were known for their trade and Islamic scholarship.
In the southwest, the Yoruba civilization developed, which was known for its art and culture.
In the 19th century, Nigeria became a major center of the transatlantic slave trade. The British colonial empire established control over the country in the late 19th century, and Nigeria gained independence in 1960.
Since independence, Nigeria has faced many challenges, including political instability, corruption, and ethnic and religious tensions.
However, Nigeria remains an important economic and cultural hub in Africa.
According to the World Bank, Nigeria’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for 2019 was estimated to be $397.9 billion USD, making it the largest economy in Africa. The country’s GDP growth for 2019 is estimated to be 2.2%, with the World Bank predicting a growth rate of 3.2% for 2020. The Nigerian economy has experienced a steady growth over the past decade, from just over $150 billion USD in 2010 to $397.9 billion USD in 2019.
The History Of Nigeria
Nigeria is a country located in West Africa, with a rich and complex history.
The earliest known civilization in the region was the Nok culture, which emerged around 1000 BCE and lasted until around 500 CE.
This culture is known for its distinctive terracotta sculptures.Over the centuries, Nigeria was home to a number of different kingdoms and empires, including the Kanem-Bornu Empire, the Nupe Kingdom and the Oyo Empire.
These societies were often characterized by complex political systems, extensive trade networks, and artistic and cultural achievements.
In the 19th century, Nigeria was colonized by the British, who established a protectorate over the region. After a period of colonial rule, Nigeria gained independence in 1960.
Since then, the country has experienced a number of political and economic challenges, including a civil war in the late 1960s and ongoing issues with corruption and poverty.
However, Nigeria remains a diverse and vibrant country with a rich cultural heritage.
Types Of Foods In Nigeria
Nigeria has a rich and diverse culinary tradition, with many delicious and unique dishes. Here are some popular Nigerian foods:
- Jollof Rice – a spicy, tomato-based rice dish that is a staple in Nigeria and many other West African countries.
- Egusi soup – a thick soup made with ground melon seeds, vegetables, and spices.
- Eba – a starchy staple food made from cassava flour and water.
- Suya – spicy skewered meat (usually beef or chicken) that is grilled over an open flame.
- Moin moin – a steamed bean cake made with black-eyed peas, peppers, and spices.Akara – deep-fried bean cakes made with black-eyed peas, onions, and spices.
- Pounded Yam – a starchy dish made from yam that is pounded until smooth and served with soup or stew.
- Plantain – a popular side dish made from ripe or unripe plantains, which can be fried, boiled, or roasted.
- These are just a few of the many delicious and popular Nigerian foods.
Types Of Dresses In Nigeria
Nigeria is home to various traditional dresses that reflect its diverse culture and ethnic groups.
Some of the popular traditional dresses in Nigeria include:
- Agbada: A flowing, robe-like attire worn by men usually made of richly patterned fabrics.
- Ankara: A vibrant and colorful fabric that is often used to make dresses, skirts, and blouses.
- Buba: A traditional blouse that is paired with a wrapper or skirt.
- Dashiki: A colorful, loose-fitting shirt that is often worn by men.
- Gele: A headscarf often worn by women to complement their traditional attire.
- Kaftan: A flowing, robe-like attire worn by men and women.
- Wrapper: A long piece of fabric that is wrapped around the waist and worn as a skirt.
- Aso-oke: A traditional fabric that is often used to make dresses, skirts, and blouses.
These traditional dresses have evolved over time and are now being incorporated into modern fashion, creating a unique blend of traditional and modern styles.
List Of Presidents In Nigeria
As of 2023, Nigeria has had 15 presidents since gaining independence in 1960.
Here is a list of the presidents in Nigeria in chronological order:
- 1. Nnamdi Azikiwe (1963 – 1966)
- 2. Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi (1966)
- 3. Yakubu Gowon (1966 – 1975)
- 4. Murtala Mohammed (1975 – 1976)
- 5. Olusegun Obasanjo (1976 – 1979 and 1999 – 2007)
- 6. Shehu Shagari (1979 – 1983)
- 7. Muhammadu Buhari (1983 – 1985 and 2015 – 2023)
- 8. Ibrahim Babangida (1985 – 1993)
- 9. Ernest Shonekan (1993)
- 10. Sani Abacha (1993 – 1998)
- Abdulsalami Abubakar (1998 – 1999)
- 11. Umaru Musa Yar’Adua (2007 – 2010)
- 12. Goodluck Jonathan (2010 – 2015)
- 13Muhammadu Buhari (2015 – 2023)
- 13. Bola Ahmad Tinubu (as of April 2023)
How Nigeria Got Her Independence
Nigeria gained her independence from British colonial rule on October 1, 1960.
The journey towards independence started in 1947 when the British Government set up a committee to look into the possibility of granting Nigeria self-governance.
The committee recommended that Nigeria be given self-government but the process was slow due to various political and economic factors.
In 1954, regional self-governments were established in Nigeria and this paved the way for the eventual independence of the country.
The path to independence was not without challenges and setbacks, including political tensions between the various regions and ethnic groups in the country.
In 1959, the Nigerian people held a general election which was won by the Northern People’s Congress led by Sir Ahmadu Bello.
Following this, negotiations were held between Nigerian leaders and the British government, resulting in the proclamation of Nigeria as an independent nation on October 1, 1960.
The System Of Nigeria Government
Nigeria is a federal republic, with three tiers of government: federal, state and local. The federal government is responsible for the country’s overall governance, while the state and local governments are responsible for matters such as law and order, education, healthcare and infrastructure. The federal government is headed by a President, who is elected by the people and serves a term of four years. The President is assisted by a Vice President, who is also elected by the people. The federal government is further divided into three branches: the executive branch, the legislative branch and the judiciary branch. The executive branch is responsible for the day-to-day running of the government, while the legislative branch is responsible for making laws and the judiciary branch is responsible for interpreting and enforcing the law.
The Nigeria Export Products
Nigeria is a major exporter of oil and natural gas, and is also a major exporter of other commodities such as cocoa, rubber, palm oil and wood. Other exports include metals, minerals, textiles and fish. Nigeria is also a major exporter of agricultural produce such as yams, cassava, tomatoes, maize, peanuts, rubber and cotton. In addition, Nigeria is a major exporter of services such as telecommunications, construction, banking and finance, and transportation.
The Nigeria Import Products
Nigeria imports a wide range of products, including machinery and transportation equipment, consumer goods, and food products. Other items imported include chemicals, pharmaceutical products, and petroleum products. Major imports include machinery, vehicles, aircraft, and telecommunications equipment, as well as consumer goods such as food, beverages, tobacco, and clothing. Other imports include pharmaceuticals, medicines, chemicals, and agricultural products.
List Of States In Nigeria
Nigeria is divided into 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT).
1. Akwa Ibom State
2. Anambra State
3. Bauchi State
4. Bayelsa State
5. Benue State
6. Borno State
7. Cross River State
8. Delta State
9. Ebonyi State
10. Edo State
11. Ekiti State
12. Enugu State
13. Gombe State
14. Imo State
15. Jigawa State
16. Kaduna State
17. Kano State
18. Katsina State
19. Kebbi State
20. Kogi State
21. Kwara State
22. Lagos State
23. Nasarawa State
24. Niger State
25. Ogun State
26. Ondo State
27. Osun State
28. Oyo State
29. Plateau State
30. Rivers State
31. Sokoto State
32. Taraba State
33. Yobe State
34. Zamfara State.
The FCT is located in the centre of the country.
The Nigeria Civil War
The Nigeria Civil War, also known as the Biafra War, was a deadly conflict that lasted from 1967 to 1970 in Nigeria. The war was fought between the government of Nigeria, led by General Yakubu Gowon, and the secessionist state of Biafra, led by Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu.
The war was sparked by a series of political crises and ethnic tensions within Nigeria. In 1966, a group of military officers, mostly Igbo, carried out a coup and overthrew the civilian government.
However, a counter-coup led by Hausa officers in July of the same year saw the Igbo suppressed and massacred.
This led to the secession of the Igbo-majority Eastern Region in 1967 and the formation of the independent state of Biafra.
The Nigerian government, unwilling to let Biafra secede, declared war on Biafra in July 1967. The war quickly turned bloody with a series of close-combat fighting, blockades, famine, and genocide. The Biafran secessionists were largely pushed back, and the war ended in January 1970 with the Nigerian victory, following the capture of Ojukwu.
The war was a devastating conflict, causing the death of more than a million people, mostly civilians, through starvation and disease.
The war had a significant emotional and psychological impact on Nigeria and its people, shaping ethnic tensions and political relations within the country for years.
Types Of Nigerian Cultures
Nigeria is home to over 250 ethnic groups, each with its unique cultures and traditions. Some of the significant cultures in Nigeria include:
1. Hausa-Fulani culture: This is a primarily Muslim culture dominant in the northern part of Nigeria. It’s characterized by impressive dressing, beautiful architecture, and commendable music.
2. Yoruba culture: This is a southwestern Nigerian culture, famous for its beautiful dressing, music, dance, and art.
3. Igbo culture: This culture is found in southeastern Nigeria, and they are known for their high regard for education, agriculture, and trade. Their artistic and innovative skills are also remarkable.
4. Nupe culture: This culture is peculiar to the Nupe people of North Central Nigeria, and it’s characterized by beautiful art, beads making, cultural and traditional fastival, and fascinating ceremonies. This particular tribe are known as the most bravest tribe in Nigeria.
5. Ibibio culture: This culture is found in southeastern Nigeria, and it’s known for its rich folklore, music, and dance.
Other prominent cultures in Nigeria include the Tiv culture, Efik culture, Kanuri culture, and many more. Each culture is unique in its practices, language, and beliefs, and they all add to Nigeria’s diverse heritage.
List Of Notable People In Nigeria
1. Nnamdi Azikiwe: First president of Nigeria, also known as “Zik of Africa.”
2. Obafemi Awolowo: Nigerian statesman, lawyer, and writer who played a key role in Nigeria’s independence movement.
3. Chinua Achebe: Nigerian novelist, poet, and professor hailed as the father of modern African literature.
4. Wole Soyinka: Nigerian playwright, poet, and political activist who became the first African to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1986.
5. Goodluck Jonathan: Nigerian politician served as the President of Nigeria from 2010 to 2015.
6. Azumah Nelson: Ghanaian retired professional boxer. He was a three-time world boxing champion, named by the BBC as the greatest boxer ever to come out of Africa.
7. Aliko Dangote: Nigerian businessman and philanthropist. He is the owner of the Dangote Group, which has interests in commodities.
8. Fela Kuti: Nigerian musician, composer, and bandleader who, in the 1970s and 80s, pioneered the Afrobeat sound by combining West African rhythms.
9. Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti: Nigerian feminist, activist, and educator who was one of the leading voices of women’s liberation in Africa.
10. Muhammadu Buhari: Current President of Nigeria, who took office in 2015.
The System Of Nigeria Election
Nigeria operates a democratic system of government where elected leaders represent citizens at the federal, state, and local government levels.
Elections are held every four years, with the last one being held in 2019. The electoral process in Nigeria involves the following:
1. Voter registration: Citizens are required to register to vote in advance of any election.
This is done by providing personal details to the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC).
2. Political parties: Political parties are registered with INEC and participate in the election.
Citizens choose their preferred candidate by voting for a political party either the Presidential, National or state assembly positions.
3. Campaigns: Political parties campaign to gain support from the electorate. This involves rallies, debates, and media campaigns.
4. Voting: During elections, eligible voters cast their votes in polling units closest to their registered addresses.
Voters are required to present valid identification documents before being allowed to vote.
5. Counting of votes: Political parties and observers monitor the counting process to ensure transparency and prevent electoral fraud.
6. Announcement of results: The final election results are announced by INEC after collating results from all polling units.
7. Election petitions: Candidates who feel aggrieved after the election can contest the result by filing a legal petition to the courts.
Overall, the Nigerian electoral system is still facing challenges such as corruption, voter suppression, electoral violence, and irregularities.
The government, INEC, civil society organizations, and other stakeholders are working towards addressing these issues to ensure credible and transparent elections in Nigeria.
List Of Nigeria Film Industries
Here we provided a list of some of the major Nigerian film industries and the year of their establishment:
- 1. Nollywood (1992
- 2. Kannywood (1992)
- 3. Yoruba film industry (Yoruba Nollywood) (1948)
- 4. Nupewood film industry (Niger, Kwara and Kogi) (2000)
- 5. Asaba (Delta State) film industry (2000s)
- 6. Abeokuta (Ogun State) film industry (1970s)
- 7. Cross River State film industry (2000s)
- 8. Edo State film industry (2000s)
- 9. Benue State film industry (2000s)
- 10. Igbowood (Igbo Nollywood) (late 1980s)
List Of Minerals Resources In Nigeria
1. Crude oil: Nigeria is among the largest oil-producing countries in the world, with an estimated 37.2 billion barrels of proven oil reserves. It is the main source of revenue for the country.
2. Natural gas: Nigeria is also one of the top natural gas producers in the world, with proven reserves of about 188.64 trillion cubic feet. The gas is used for power generation, domestic cooking, and industrial activities.
3. Coal: Nigeria has significant coal reserves estimated at over 2 billion metric tons. Coal is used for power generation and industrial activities.
4. Iron ore: Nigeria has vast iron ore deposits, with proven reserves estimated at over 3 billion metric tons. Iron ore is used for steel production in the country.
5. Lead and zinc: Nigeria has over 10 million tons of lead and zinc reserves, which are used for the production of batteries, paint, and other industrial products.
6. Gold: Nigeria has large gold deposits, particularly in the northwestern and southwestern regions of the country. The mineral is used for jewelry production and as a hedge against inflation.
7. Limestone: Nigeria has a vast amount of limestone deposits, with estimated reserves of over 2 trillion metric tons. The mineral is used for cement production and other industrial applications.
8. Bauxite: Nigeria has significant bauxite deposits, particularly in the southeastern region of the country. The mineral is used for the production of aluminum and other industrial products.
9. Tantalite: Nigeria has significant tantalite deposits, particularly in the central and northern regions of the country. The mineral is used for the production of electronic devices.
10. Bitumen: Nigeria has one of the largest bitumen reserves in the world, estimated at over 42 billion barrels. The mineral is used for road construction and other industrial applications.
11. Granite: Nigeria has vast granite deposits that are used for construction purposes such as buildings, bridges, and roads.
12. Kaolin: Nigeria has significant kaolin deposits, particularly in the southwestern region of the country. The mineral is used for the production of ceramics, paper, and other industrial applications.
13. Columbite: Nigeria has significant columbite reserves, particularly in the central and northeastern regions of the country. The mineral is used for the production of superalloys and other industrial applications.
14. Gypsum: Nigeria has significant gypsum deposits, particularly in the northeastern region of the country. The mineral is used for the production of plaster of Paris, cement, and other industrial applications.
15. Salt: Nigeria has significant salt deposits, particularly in the southwestern region of the country. The mineral is used for the production of food seasoning, industrial salts, and other applications.
16. Gemstones: Nigeria has a wide variety of gemstones, including aquamarine, topaz, emerald, garnet, tourmaline, and sapphire. These are used for jewelry production and as a hedge against inflation.
17. Tin: Nigeria has significant tin reserves, particularly in the central and western regions of the country. The mineral is used for the production of tinplate, solder, and other industrial applications.
18. Wolframite: Nigeria has significant wolframite reserves, particularly in the central and northeastern regions of the country. The mineral is used for the production of superalloys and other industrial applications.
19. Manganese: Nigeria has significant manganese deposits, particularly in the southwestern region of the country. The mineral is used for steel production and other industrial applications.
20. Phosphate: Nigeria has significant phosphate deposits, particularly in the northeastern region of the country. The mineral is used for the production of fertilizers and other agricultural applications.
The Nigeria Educational System
The educational system in Nigeria is structured into six levels: Early Childhood Education, Primary Education, Junior Secondary Education, Senior Secondary Education, Tertiary Education, and Higher Education.
Early Childhood Education:
Early Childhood Education starts from the age of three and lasts for two years. It is aimed at providing care, education, and socialization for infants and young children. It is not mandatory but is encouraged as a foundation for future learning.
Primary Education is the first level of formal education in Nigeria, and it is mandatory for all children aged six to 12. It lasts for six years, and it provides a basic foundation in literacy, numeracy, and socialization.
Junior Secondary Education:
Junior Secondary Education is the second level of formal education in Nigeria, and it lasts for three years. It is for students aged 12 to 15 and provides a general education in academics, vocational, and technical skill development.
Senior Secondary Education:
Senior Secondary Education is the third level of formal education in Nigeria, and it lasts for three years.
It is for students aged 15 to 18 and provides a more advanced level of education in academics, vocational, and technical skill development. Students are also exposed to a range of co-curricular activities and community service programs.
Tertiary Education is the level of education after senior secondary education, and it is not mandatory. It comprises polytechnics, colleges of education, and universities. It lasts for a minimum of two years and provides a more specialized and higher level of education.
Higher Education is the postgraduate level of education in Nigeria. It comprises of master’s degree, doctoral degree, and professional certification programs. It is designed to provide in-depth knowledge and skills necessary for individuals in specialized fields.
The Nigerian Educational System is managed by the Federal Government of Nigeria through the Ministry of Education.
Private institutions are also allowed to provide education at all levels in line with regulatory requirements.
The Nigerian educational system is continually evolving, with a focus on improving access to education, quality of education, and ensuring relevance to the country’s development objectives.
Nigeria Currencies History
Before Nigeria’s independence in 1960, the legal tender in Nigeria was the British West African pound (BWA).
After independence, the following currencies have been used in Nigeria:
1. Nigerian pound (1960 – 1973): The Nigerian pound was introduced after independence in 1960, and was in use until January 1973.
2. Nigerian naira (1973 – present): The Nigerian naira was introduced in January 1973, to replace the Nigerian pound as the official currency of Nigeria. The naira is divided into 100 kobo, although the value of kobo has significantly diminished since its introduction due to inflation.
Over the years, the naira has suffered from various economic challenges, including devaluations, hyperinflation, and currency manipulations. Nevertheless, different naira banknotes and coins have been produced by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), with varying sizes, colors, and security features, in an effort to improve the country’s currency system.
Below is a list of the different denominations of naira banknotes and coins in Nigeria:
- 1. ₦1000
- 2. ₦500
- 3. ₦200
- 4. ₦100
- 1. ₦1
- 2. ₦5
- 3. ₦10
- 4. ₦20
- 5. ₦50
- 6. ₦2000
- 1. ₦1
- 2. ₦2
- 3. ₦5
- 4. ₦10
- 5. ₦20
- 6. ₦50
- 1. ½ kobo
- 2. 1 kobo
- 3. 5 kobo
- 4. 10 kobo
- 5. 25 kobo
Overall, the naira has been the official currency used in Nigeria for most of its history as an independent country.
Table of Contents
- 1 The History Of Nigeria
- 2 Types Of Foods In Nigeria
- 3 Types Of Dresses In Nigeria
- 4 List Of Presidents In Nigeria
- 5 How Nigeria Got Her Independence
- 6 The System Of Nigeria Government
- 7 The Nigeria Export Products
- 8 The Nigeria Import Products
- 9 List Of States In Nigeria
- 10 The Nigeria Civil War
- 11 Types Of Nigerian Cultures
- 12 List Of Notable People In Nigeria
- 13 The System Of Nigeria Election
- 14 List Of Nigeria Film Industries
- 15 List Of Minerals Resources In Nigeria
- 16 The Nigeria Educational System
- 17 Nigeria Currencies History