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The Brief History Of Borno Empire Before 19 Century

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The Brief History Of Borno Empire Before 19 Century

The Brief History Of Borno Empire Before 19 Century, Borno Empire, Borno Old Town, Kanuri History, Kanem History


BORNO OLD KINGDOM

History and Exploration – Northern Nigeria

At the beginning of the nineteenth century Bornu was a well organized and powerful state which maintained prestige notwithstanding a temporary conquest by the Wadaians, who were eventually defeated. Omar ruled as Shehu of Bornu until his death in 1880; consequently, he became acquainted with the explorers Barth, Vogel, Rohlfs, Richardson, and Nachtigal.

The origin of the present day Kanuri tribes of Bornu is not known, though they probably entered Bornu in the fourteenth century. The Keri-Keri are a modern branch of the tribes who developed into the Kanuri, while the Bolewa, a ruling tribe near Potiskum, arrived with the pre-Kanuri.

The date 1814 is important because of the founding of Kukawa, the new capital of Bornu, a city which was later (1893) destroyed by Rabeh, a conqueror from Kordofan. Rabeh made his new capital at Dikwa, where he continued to rule and pillage until defeated and killed by French forces in the year 1900. The political significance of Rabeh’s exploits has been described by M. F. von Oppenheim.

Borno Worriors, The Brief History Of Borno Empire Before 19 Century, Borno Empire, Borno Old Town, Kanuri History, Kanem History


BORNO WORRIORS

The Fulani, who are known in various parts of west Africa as Fulas, Fulbe, Fellata, and Peule, have played an important part in the history of Bornu and other parts of Nigeria. The ethnological affinities of the Fulani are undecided. They appear to have a distinctly Berber-like appearance, and the features of some individuals are of an Armenoid type.

Palmer favors the hypothesis of an origin which includes a mingling of Jewish, Arab, and Zaghawa (Cushite) blood. C. K. Meek believes that the Fulani may be an ancient Libyan (northern Hamitic) tribe.

Delafosse has a theory of Judaeo-Syrian origin, but most ethnologists agree on the Hamitic affinities of the Fulani, both somatically and linguistically, though the speech is probably an early form of Hamitic.

Old Borno People, The Brief History Of Borno Empire Before 19 Century, Borno Empire, Borno Old Town, Kanuri History, Kanem History


BORNO WORRIORS

Despite the doubtful origin of the Fulani, their function as makers of Nigerian history is clear in outline. The Fulani penetrated Nigeria peacefully and gradually from the thirteenth century onward.

But this settlement as pastoral people was followed by a demand for political power. To a great extent the Fulani are nomads, yet they settled and concentrated their forces sufficiently to establish their foci by conquest.

In 1808 the Fulani subdued the Hausa states, after which they unsuccessfully assailed Bornu.

The nineteenth century history of the Nupe and Yoruba of southern Nigeria is concerned with their struggle to keep out Fulani assailants.

Between 1817 and 1823 Ilorin was added to the Fulani empire, which comprised several loosely confederated states, all of which paid tribute to the Fulani of Sokoto. The Fulani empire experienced internal rebellions, civil wars, decline of the Islamic fervor that had been an incentive to conquest, and a breaking down of military organization.

The final overthrow of the Fulani states was effected by the British Government, which took action in the period 1900-1903, after the British Army Of Royal Niger Company had defeated the Fulani and Nupe rulers of Bida and Ilorin.

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